Presentation at the 19th BACP Research Conference, May 2013

19th Annual BACP Research Conference, 10 & 11 May 2013;
Conference title ‘Synergy in counselling & psychotherapy research’

Presenter: Dr Biljana van Rijn and other author: Ciara Wild

ABSTRACT: Research Clinic: Routine Outcome Evaluation of Humanistic and Integrative Therapy

Keywords (give 5): research clinic, Humanistic and Integrative psychotherapy/counselling; routine outcome evaluation


The research was a naturalistic, non randomised, evaluation of Transactional Analysis (TA) and Gestalt psychotherapies, Integrative Counselling Psychology and Person Centred counselling within a community based service. Routine outcome evaluation used standardised measures to assess treatment outcomes and working alliance. Adherence to the model was evaluated in clinical supervision. The outcomes showed that clients who engaged in treatment made statistically significant improvements and that Transactional Analysis and Gestalt psychotherapies, Integrative Counselling psychology and Person Centred counselling can be used effectively in treatment of anxiety and depression within a community setting. Clients had a choice about the duration of therapy and used different numbers of sessions within the framework of the service. The presentation will offer a reflection on how a choice of therapist and a length of therapy impacted on outcomes.

To evaluate the outcomes of humanistic and integrative psychotherapies (Transactional Analysis, Gestalt, Integrative Counselling Psychology) and Person Centred counselling in routine practice by:

  • Evaluating whether these therapies achieved a  significant reduction in scores on  standardises measures
  • Comparing the effectiveness of different theoretical orientations


The project was a naturalistic, non-randomised, evaluation of routine outcomes of Transactional Analysis and Gestalt psychotherapies, Integrative Counselling Psychology and Gestalt and Person Centred counselling. Differences between the approaches have not been evaluated due to the sample size.

Therapy was evaluated using sessional standardised measures  (GAD7;PHQ9;Core 10), pre and post measures (BDI-II;CORE 34). Adherence to the theoretical model was evaluated using Adherence questionnaires.


67 herapists and 321 clients took part in the evaluation. There was a high percentage of completed data sets (over 90% for sessional measures). The outcomes show that:

  • Clients who continued in therapy after the assessment period, achieved a significant improvement and large effect size on sessional measures for depression, anxiety and general outcomes measured by CORE 10.
  • There were no differences in effectiveness between theoretical orientations

Additional Analysis:

  • Analysis of the high level of attrition and requests to change therapists during the assessment period. It showed that once the clients changed therapists they achieved the same levels of change as those who made a good working relationship with their initial therapist.
  • Length of therapy. The number of sessions varied between individual clients, but was not directly related to the outcomes.

Research Limitations relevant to naturalistic research:

  • No randomisation
  • No control group
  • Limited monitoring of  therapist techniques in sessions
  • Evaluation of therapies in routine practice, rather than efficacy.


  • Humanistic (Transactional Analysis; Gestalt Psychotherapy; Person Centred Counselling) and Integrative therapies achieved a significant improvement in anxiety, depression and general wellbeing in routine practice, within a community setting.
  • There was no difference in effectiveness between these approaches
  • Length of therapy varied but a number of sessions was not directly linked to outcomes
  • A large proportion of clients stop therapy prematurely within a community setting. Offering a different therapist to those clients enabled them to engage in therapy and gain from it.


2nd EATA TA Research Conference

Details about this conference can be found at:
Upcomming conferences:

Paper presentation: Research Clinic, Development, Outcomes and Challenges

The paper will present a year (2010-2011) in the research clinic at Metanoia Institute. This was a naturalistic evaluative study using quantitative, standardised methods of evaluation within a low cost training clinic. Outcomes of evaluation of TA psychotherapy, alongside Integrative Counselling Psychology, Gestalt psychotherapy and Person Centred counselling will be presented and discussed. The presentation will end with recommendations for future research and learning about the development of research clinics.
About the Presenter(s)
Biljana van Rijn is a Head of Clinical and Research Services at Metanoia Institute in London, where she has developed a research clinic and conducts practice based evaluative research projects. She teaches on the MSc programme in Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy and the Doctorate in Counselling Psychology at Metanoia Institute and offers research supervision. Biljana also works as a psychotherapist and supervisor in private practice in West Sussex.
Outcomes for delegates:
Knowledge about current research on effectiveness of Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy.
Understanding of the gains and challenges of evaluation in practice settings.

Article in Script Magazine (ITAA)

From: Script Magazine VOL. 42, NO. 4  APRIL 2012

Evaluation in Psychotherapy: An Opportunity and a Challenge

by Biljana van Rijn

Standardized evaluation and the development of clinical guidelines for psychotherapy have had a significant impact on services in the United Kingdom. Health organizations are funding short-term, evidence-based treatments, primarily cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Other evidence-based treatments (e.g., psychoanalytic psychotherapy and person-centered counseling) continue to be recognized. Humanistic and integrative approaches such as transactional analysis are challenged to provide the research evidence base for their work or become marginalized. click here to read more

A new paper in a new journal

Biljana van Rijn, Ciara Wild, Patricia Moran
Evaluation of Integrative Counselling Psychology and Transactional Analysis in Primary Care Health Setting
Journal of Integrative Research, Counselling and Psychotherapy JIRCP pag. 36-46

The objective of the study was to evaluate Transactional Analysis and Integrative Counselling Psychology as treatments within a health setting. The research was a naturalistic study, based in real clinical settings. The 12 session treatment was evaluated using standardised outcome measures, as well as the Working Alliance Inventory (Horvath, 1986) to reflect the emphasis on the therapeutic relationship within both therapeutic approaches. The research demonstrated that severity of problems was reduced using these treatments within the primary care health setting, and that severity of symptoms predicted outcomes. Working alliance increased as therapy progressed but was not directly related to the outcomes. This research suggests that Transactional Analysis and Integrative Counselling Psychology could be used as effective psychological therapies in primary health care, for clients presenting with anxiety and depression, as well as the wider range of difficulties in functioning.

Key words:effectiveness in clinical practice, integrative counselling psychology, transactional analysis psychotherapy, evaluation of practice

The Journal:

Journal of Integrative Research, Counselling and Psychotherapy

Published/Edited by: The Association of Integrative Research, Counselling and Psychotherapy, with the support of Metanoia Institute and St Luke’s Healthcare. The Journal of Integrative Research, Counselling and Psychotherapy (JIRCP) publishes original peer-reviewed papers concerning research, theory and practice in integrative psychotherapy and counselling.

In order to view the articles in the Journal you must be logged in. The editorial and book reviews are accessible for everyone. In order to subscribe to JIRCP please contact:

Evaluating the Outcomes of Transactional Analysis and Integrative Counselling Psychology within UK Primary Care Settings

A new article is published in the July issue of the International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research (Vol 2 No 2, July 2011) [].

Evaluating the Outcomes of Transactional Analysis and Integrative Counselling Psychology within UK Primary Care Settings
© 2011 Biljana van Rijn, Ciara Wild, Patricia Moran

The paper reports on a naturalistic study that replicated the evaluative design associated with the UK National Health Service initiative IAPT − Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (CSIP 2008, NHS 2011), as previously used to assess Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), with the aim of evaluating 12-session treatments for anxiety and depression, applying Transactional Analysis and Integrative Counselling Psychology approaches within real clinical settings in primary care. Standard outcome measures were used in line with the IAPT model (CORE 10 and 34, GAD-7, PHQ-9), supplemented with measurement of the working alliance (WAI Horvath 1986) and an additional depression inventory BDI-II (Beck, 1996), and ad-herence to the therapeutic model using newly designed questionnaires. Results indicated that severity of problems was reduced using either approach, comparative to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy; that initial severity was predictive of outcome; and that working alliance increased as therapy progressed but was not directly related to outcomes. Adherence was high for both approaches. Several areas for enhancements to future research are suggested.
Key words
Transactional analysis psychotherapy, integrative coun-selling psychology, CORE, WAI, BDI-11, PHQ-9, GAD-7, anxiety/depression, IAPT, CBT.

The article is available as an PDF for free from the IJTAR website. The IJTAR promotes open access, please contribute to help support International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research [].